Prediction of miscarriage in first trimester by serum estradiol, progesterone and β-human chorionic gonadotropin within 9 weeks of gestation

Purpose: To predict miscarriage outcome within 12 weeks of gestational age by evaluating values of serum estradiol, progesterone and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) within 9 weeks of gestation.
Methods: One hundred sixty-five women with singleton pregnancies were retrospectively studied. Estradiol, progesterone and β-HCG levels were measured at 5-6 weeks of gestation and the measurements were repeated at 7-9 weeks. According to pregnancy outcome at 12 weeks of gestation, 71 cases were categorized into miscarriage group, and 94 cases into group of normal pregnancy. Each group was further divided into 5-6 and 7-9 weeks of gestation sub-group. Predictive values of estradiol, progesterone and β- HCG levels at 5-6 weeks and 7-9 weeks of gestation were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and logistic regression.
Results: Serum levels of estradiol at 7-9 weeks identified miscarriage with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.866 (95% CI 0. 793 ~ 0.938, P = 0.000), diagnostic cutoff value of 576 pg/ml, sensitivity of 0.804, and specificity of 0.829 respectively at the optimal threshold, according to Youden index. Progesterone levels at 7-9 weeks were with AUC of 0.766 (95% CI 0. 672 ~ 0.861, P = 0.000), cutoff value of 15.27 ng/ml, sensitivity of 0.921, and specificity of 0.558, respectively; Estradiol at 5-6 weeks were with AUC of 0.709 (95% CI 0. 616 ~ 0.801, P < 0.001), the diagnostic cutoff value of 320 pg/ml, sensitivity of 0.800, and specificity of 0.574, respectively. The performance of the dual markers of estradiol and progesterone analysis (AUC 0.871, CI 0.793-0.950), three-markers analysis (AUC 0.869, CI 0.759-0.980)were slightly better than the single marker at 7-9 weeks. β-HCG or progesterone provide additional utility of estradiol prediction at 5-6 weeks with AUC 0.770 (0.672-0.869) for β-HCG and estradiol, AUC0.768(CI 0.670-0.866) for β-HCG, estradiol and progesterone and AUC 0.739 (CI 0.651-0.827) for progesterone and estradiol.
Conclusions: Low serum levels such as dual of estradiol and progesterone or estradiol alone at 7-9 weeks, β-HCG or progesterone combing estradiol at 5-6 weeks of gestation can be used better to predict miscarriage in first trimester.

Association of Serum Vitamin D and Estradiol Levels with Metabolic Syndrome in Rural Women of Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Study

Objectives: We aimed to determine the association of serum vitamin D and estradiol levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) in rural women of northwest China.
Methods: This research is a cross-sectional study. MS was defined according to the updated China Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. Fasting serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and estradiol levels were measured using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Differences between variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and t-test. Logistic regression analysis models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals.
Results: In total, 1893 women participated, of whom 641 (33.9%) had MS. The serum levels of 25(OH)D and estradiol were higher in the non-MS group. There was no significant association between 25(OH)D and estradiol levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, we compared first, second, and third quartiles with the highest quartile. Adjusted ORs for MS with respect to 25(OH)D level quartiles were 1.555, 1.281, and 1.568, respectively. Adjusted ORs for MS with respect to estradiol level quartiles were 0.671, 0.785, and 0.996, respectively. In the vitamin D-deficient (VD-deficient) group, adjusted ORs for MS with respect to estradiol level quartiles were 0.635, 0.753, and 0.918, respectively.
Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between MS and vitamin D level and a positive correlation between MS and estradiol level. Low estradiol concentrations increased the risk of MS in the VD-deficient group. The results suggest a potential synergism between low 25(OH)D concentration and estradiol in MS in women.

Comparative evaluation of low-level light therapy and ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel combined oral contraceptive for clinical efficacy and regulation of serum biochemical parameters in primary dysmenorrhoea: a prospective randomised multicentre trial

  • We aimed to compare low-level light therapy with oral contraceptive pills for pain relief and serum levels of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in patients with primary dysmenorrhoea. This was a randomised, active comparator-controlled, multicentre study. In total, 156 patients were randomised to receive either low-level light therapy with light-emitting diodes (LED) applying on two acupoints, namely, conception vessel 4 (CV4) and CV6 or conventional treatment with oral Marvelon, 30 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 µg of desogestrel (DSG/EE), for three consecutive menstrual cycles. The main outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved 33% or more decrease in pain scores measured using the visual analogue scale, which was deemed as efficient rate.
  • Absolute changes in visual analogue scale scores, serum levels of nitric oxide (assessed by nitrites and nitrates reflecting nitric oxide metabolism) and prostaglandin E2 (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were the secondary outcomes. A total of 135 patients completed the study (73 in the light therapy group and 62 in the DSG/EE group). The efficient rate at the end of treatment was comparable between the groups (73.6% vs. 85.7%, χ2 = 2.994, p = 0.084).
  • A more significant reduction in pain scores was observed in the DSG/EE group (39.25% vs. 59.52%, p < 0.001). Serum levels of prostaglandin E2 significantly decreased from baseline but did not differ between groups (- 109.57 ± 3.99 pg/mL vs. – 118.11 ± 12.93 pg/mL, p = 0.51). Nitric oxide concentration remained stable in both groups. Low-level light therapy with LED-based device applied on acupuncture points CV4 and CV6 demonstrated a similar level of dysmenorrhoea pain reduction to DSG/EE combined contraceptive. Both treatment modalities achieved clinically meaningful levels of pain reduction.

The therapeutic effect of bromocriptine as mesylate and estradiol valerate on serum and blood biochemistry of common quails

Hematology and serum biochemistry study may provide antique knowledge about the physical status of individuals, making them a valuable tool to differentiate healthy animals from affected animals. We aimed to investigate Steroid safety levels in birds through ex-situ studies at regular therapeutic doses. A total of 100 birds were used for hematology and serum biochemistry. This study was designed into 2 trials over the summer and winter, each comprised 5, 10, 15, and 20 d. Each study group was based on 5 control group birds and 20 experimental group birds. A sum of 2 groups representing 2 different steroids trial groups was treated with therapeutic doses to the stretch of 5, 10, 15, and 20 d each season.
A therapeutic dose of each of the steroids was given at the rate of 3 drops 2 times a day to each bird. Analysis of data reveals that steroids had severe effects on bird’s (Coturnix coturnix) hematological parameters. In most trials, the hematological effects of bromocriptine as mesylate showed an increase in red blood cell count and white blood cell count. On the other hand, steroid estradiol valerate showed a decrease in these parameters. Effect of steroids on serum biochemistry profile indicate acute damage to vital organs, especially to liver and kidney, indicating an increase in cholesterol, total protein, albumin, urea, and uric acid. The overall effect of steroids on the bird’s serum and biochemistry of quails were nearly similar but different only in their intensity.

Estradiol Serum ELISA Kit (1 Plate)

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OKAU00066-5PLATE - Estradiol Serum ELISA Kit

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DetectX® Serum Estradiol Antibody, 3ML

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DetectX® Serum Estradiol Antibody, 13ML

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DetectX® Serum Estradiol Conjugate, 3ML

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DetectX® Serum Estradiol Conjugate, 13ML

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Estradiol 17b, 6-CMO (Estradiol 6, 17b CMO)

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Association between the serum estrone-to-estradiol ratio and parameters related to glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between the ratio of serum estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2) and parameters related to serum glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Methods: In total, 133 women between the ages of 18 and 35 diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study. All participants with PCOS underwent blood tests to determine hormonal and biochemical metabolic parameters and a standard 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. They were divided into two groups according to the serum E1-to-E2 ratio: group 1 (E1/E2 ratio <2.0) and group 2 (E1/E2 ratio ≥2.0).
Results: In the comparative analysis, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was the only clinical variable that was significantly different between the two groups. Patients with a higher E1/E2 ratio showed higher fasting insulin levels, homeostasis model for insulin resistance, and postprandial glucose level at 2 hours (PPG2). In a correlation analysis, only PPG2 was significantly related to the serum E1/E2 ratio. However, after controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and WHR, fasting glucose was also significantly correlated with the serum E1/E2 ratio.
Conclusion: Women with PCOS with a higher serum E1/E2 ratio were found to be more likely to show higher fasting insulin and postprandial glucose levels. Significant correlations were found between the serum E1/E2 ratio and both fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels after adjusting for BMI and WHR in women with PCOS.

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