The EDA deficient mouse has Zymbal’s gland hypoplasia and acute otitis externa

In mice, rats, dogs and humans the growth and function of sebaceous glands and eyelid Meibomian glands depend on the ectodysplasin signalling pathway. Mutation of genes encoding the ligand EDA, its transmembrane receptor EDAR, and the intracellular signal transducer EDARADD leads to Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia characterised by impaired development of teeth and hair as well as cutaneous glands. The rodent ear canal has a large auditory sebaceous gland, the Zymbal’s gland, whose function in the health of the ear canal and tympanic membrane has not been determined.
We report that the EDA deficient Tabby (EdaTa) mouse, the EDAR deficient mouse (EdarOVE1B/OVE1B) and the EDARADD deficient sparse and wavy hair rat (Edaraddswh/swh) have Zymbal’s gland hypoplasia. EdaTa mice also have ear canal hypotrichosis and a 25% prevalence of otitis externa at P21. Treatment with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies rescues Zymbal’s glands and ear canal pilosebaceous units.
The aetiopathogenesis of otitis externa involves infection with Gram-positive cocci and dosing pregnant and lactating EdaTa females and pups with Enrofloxacin reduces the prevalence of otitis externa. We infer the deficit of sebum is the principal factor in predisposition to bacterial infection and the EdaTa mouse is a potentially useful microbial challenge model for human acute otitis externa, commonly known as swimmer’s ear.

Evaluation of Immune Response and Haematological Parameters in Infected Male Albino Rats by Giardiasis

The present work aimed to study the effects of G. lamblia infection on immunological, haematological studies and to evaluate immunoglobulins and some cytokines. Fifty male albino rats were divided into six groups. The control group including 20 rats and the infected group includes 30 rats. All the estimations were checked all over five checkpoints (CP) (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post-infection). Serum levels of IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE. Cytokines INF-γ, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10, and haematological parameters were determined. Cyst and trophozoite were counted. A considerable increase in the level of immunoglobulins and cytokines in all infected groups compared to the control group was documented.
Furthermore, a significant decrease in red blood corpuscles, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration levels, whereas substantial increases in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and platelets were observed. Moreover, infected rats had a substantial rise in WBCs, lymphocytes, and eosinophil counts compared to the control group, whereas neutrophils and monocytes had a significant decrease.
The number of trophozoites and cysts were significantly increased in infected groups before diminishing after day 28. The current results showed that Th1 and Th2 immune responses, which are characterized by the production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10, are important for protection against Giardia infections and also verified the balance between these cytokines and the timing of their production was crucial in G. lamblia immune response. Giardia lamblia, Immunity, Antibodies, cytokines, eosinophil.

Establishment of an antibody specific for AMIGO2 improves immunohistochemical evaluation of liver metastases and clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer

Instruction: The human amphoterin-induced gene and open reading frame (AMIGO) was identified as a novel cell adhesion molecule of type I transmembrane protein. AMIGO2 is one of three members of the AMIGO family (AMIGO1, 2, and 3), and the similarity between them is approximately 40% at the amino acid level. We have previously shown that AMIGO2 functions as a driver of liver metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of AMIGO2 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) using a commercially available anti-AMIGO2 mouse monoclonal antibody clone sc-373699 (sc mAb) correlated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the sc mAb was found to be cross-reactive with all three molecules in the AMIGO family.
Methods: We generated a rat monoclonal antibody clone rTNK1A0012 (rTNK mAb) for human AMIGO2. The rTNK mAb was used to re-evaluate the association between AMIGO2 expression and liver metastases/clinical outcomes using the same CRC tissue samples previously reported with sc mAb.
Results: Western blot analysis revealed that a rTNK mAb was identified as being specific for AMIGO2 protein and did not cross-react with AMIGO1 and AMIGO3. The rTNK mAb and sc mAb showed higher AMIGO2 expression, which correlates with a high frequency of liver metastases (65.3% and 47.5%, respectively), while multivariate analysis showed that AMIGO2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for liver metastases (p = 7.930E-10 and p = 1.707E-5).
The Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that the rTNK mAb (p = 0.004), but not sc mAb (p = 0.107), predicted worse overall survival in patients with high AMIGO2 expression. The relationship between AMIGO2 expression and poor disease-specific survival showed a higher level of significance for rTNK mAb (p = 0.00004) compared to sc mAb (p = 0.001).
Conclusions: These results indicate that the developed rTNK1A0012 mAb is an antibody that specifically recognizes AMIGO2 by immunohistochemistry and can be a more reliable and applicable method for the diagnostic detection of liver metastases and worse prognosis in patients with high AMIGO2-expressing CRC.

Evaluation of Rat Brain Morphology Following the Induction of Acute Meningitis Treated with Ceftriaxone

The soft and delicate tissue of the brain, which is the center of our coordination, is protected by its surrounding layers. The disruption of these layers results in complicated situations and serious health problems. The brain has three protective layers of bone or skull tissue, the blood tissue layer, and finally the meningeal layer. The layer of blood tissue contains the blood vessels that are located between the skull and the meningeal membranes. If germs or foreign matter enter the fluid through the blood vessels under any circumstances and cause infection, the bones that protect the meninges will break and cause tissue damage.
  • The present study aimed to assess the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the brain of rats that underwent induced acute purulent pneumococcal meningitis after antibiotic therapy with Ceftriaxone. A number of 20 white adult male Wistar rats were assigned to three groups.
  • The first group (n=5) regarded as the control were injected with a saline solution into the subarachnoid space in an equivalent amount. The second and third groups of rats (n=5 and 10, respectively) were infected with acute purulent meningitis by the injection of 10 μl of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumonia) suspension into the subarachnoid space of the brain using a 23-G needle.
  • The various areas of the brains of rats after meningitis induced by S. pneumoniae were examined after the treatment with Ceftriaxone. The S. pneumoniae culture was injected into the subarachnoid space in the area of the rhomboid fossa. Treatment started 18 h after the injection.
  • On day 10, a repeated puncture was performed with the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in order to confirm the absence of meningitis; thereafter, the animals were taken out of the experiment. No signs of meningitis were found on histological examination.
  • Mild perivascular and pericellular focal edema were revealed with signs of overload of the lymphatic system in the brain and focal ischemic changes in neurons. The investigation of expression with caspase-3 revealed a positive reaction of individual neurons.
  • A positive reaction with antibodies to NeuN and Doublecortin was detected in most neurons; moreover, Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and their processes were visualized in all layers of the brain substance.
  • The reaction with neuron-specific enolase (NSE), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), CD 31, and CD 34 was negative. Typical structure and pictures pointed to an intact brain and purulent meningitis in the first and second groups.
  • The microscopic image and the changes revealed during immunohistochemistry by dual corticosteroid antibodies and neuronal nuclear protein were characterized by predominantly cytoplasmic and perinuclear reactions, respectively. Some neurons are positive for caspase-3 and are related to changes in the characteristic of premature aging.

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